Use an analog sensor as a video game controller

metrs, 123RF

Breaking Bricks

We put our Analog-to-Digital converter to work reading positions from an analog sensor (a potentiometer) and control a bat in a simple implementation of the classic Breakout game.

In the previous issue [1] we explored how to read from an analog sensor to a Raspberry Pi. Unlike an Arduino, the Pi does not have any analog input GPIOs. This means you need something between your potentiometers, temperature sensors and light detectors that will translate their analog voltage signal to a digital output the Pi can work with.

You could of course do the sensible thing – buy a Grove or Adafruit ADC module for 12, 15 dollars and work with that; or you can go old school and buy the bare bones MCP3202 analog to digital converter chip (Figure 1) for a buck.

Figure 1: The unassuming MCP3202 analog to digital converter.

That is exactly what we did last time around. As it turned out, programming an ADC is not that hard, but, although we got to see how it worked, we didn't follow through by integrating it into an application.

Last time I suggested turning your potentiometer/ADC combo into a basic controller to play Pong. But to play Pong you need a friend, and friends can be annoying. Instead, I made something much better, a game that pits human against machine.

I made Breakout.

Figure 2: Two glorified potentiometers on either side of an antique game console. In 1977 such things were considered cool. Photo by Evan Amos for Wikipedia. Licensed under the CC BY-SA 3.0.

Dial the Library

The nice thing about Python is that it is easy to turn a script into a library (or module as they are known in Python). It is also very simple to test libraries.

Take what you can see in Listing 1. It is a variation of the program we saw in our last issue [1]. All we have done is packaged the functions within a Python class, which allows you to import discrete chunks of code within a bigger program, for instance with:

Listing 1

import spidev
class dial: def __init__(self, device=0, channel=0): self.conn = spidev.SpiDev(device, channel)
def bitstring(self, n): s = bin(n)[2:] return '0'*(8-len(s)) + s
def get(self): reply_bytes = self.conn.xfer2([128, 0]) reply_bitstring = ".join(self.bitstring(n) for n in reply_bytes) return int(reply_bitstring, 2)/2047.0"
if __name__ == '__main__': dial=dial() print dial.get()
from dial import dial

In plain English, this means "From the file dial(.py), import the dial class".

The __main__ function (lines 16 to 18) has also been slightly modified from what it looked like in to compensate for the fact the functions are now modules in a class. The __main__ function exists so you can also test the module is working before you integrate it into your program. Try it out now.

Before continuing, make sure you have the spidev module installed in your Python environment:

sudo pip install spidev --upgrade

Make sure you also have configured your Pi to load SPI drivers for your GPIO pins – uncomment #dtparam=spi=on in /boot/config.txt by removing the # from the line and reboot your Pi. Read more about this in our previous article on ADCs at [1].

Set up your hardware as shown in Figure 3 – again refer back to [1] for an in-depth explanation of how this works. Figure 4 shows a closer, more detailed view of how you should connect everything.

Figure 3: Pi, 3202 and potentiometer all wired up.
Figure 4: A detailed view of how to hook the 3202 to your Pi.

Visit the directory where you have stored the file and run:

$ python

The program will output a number between 0 and 1 (well, more realistically between 0 and 0.9999). This number gives you the position of the dial on the potentiometer. Twiddle the dial, try again, and you'll get another number, and so on.

The first advantage of converting the program into the library is that it helps break the project into manageable pieces.

The second advantage is that it makes code re-usable: dump into your project's directory or, better yet, copy it to a directory Python routinely scans for libraries, and it will be made available to all your apps. Create a directory for your modules in your home directory, for example:

$ mkdir -p $HOME/lib/python

Next copy into it.

Now add the line:


at the end of your .bashrc file and run

$ source .bashrc

to validate the changes.

When you execute


, if you see /home/pi/lib/python (or whatever your home directory is) on its own or among a bunch of other directories, then all's well.

Python scans PYTHONPATH to see what directories it has to search for libraries, so from now on when you write a new program, will be available immediately, without you having to copy it over to your new project's directory from elsewhere.

Writing your own libraries makes it easier to integrate snippets of code into the main program. This will make your programs shorter, clearer and easier to read, which, in turn will make them easier to debug.


This brings me to Listing 2. This is the fully functional, albeit very basic, implementation of the classic Atari Breakout game. It uses the feedback from a potentiometer or, indeed any other analog sensor, to move the paddle. You could conceivably use a luminosity or temperature sensor to play, although good luck with that.

Listing 2 (continues on next page >)

001 import pygame
002 import time
003 from dial import dial
005 screen_size = (400,640)
006 lv = min(screen_size)
007 pygame.display.init()
008 screen = pygame.display.set_mode (screen_size)
010 class ball(object):
011   def __init__(self):
012   self.pos = (screen_size[0]/2, screen_size[1]/2)
013   self.ball =, (200,200,255), (self.pos),5)
014   self.vx = int(screen_size[0]/lv)
015   self.vy = int(screen_size[1]/lv)
017   def move(self):
018, (0,0,0),, 5)
019   self.ball.move_ip(self.vx, self.vy)
020, (200,200,255),, 5)
022   def collision(self, obstacle):
023   hit=self.ball.collidelist(obstacle)
024   if hit != -1:
025   self.bounce(obstacle[hit])
027   return hit
029   def bounce(self, obstacle):
030   distx = abs(self.ball.centerx - obstacle.centerx)
031   if distx == (((self.ball.width+obstacle.width)/2)-1):
032   self.vx = -self.vx
033   else:
034   self.vy = -self.vy
036 class level(object):
037   def __init__(self):
038   self.court = [
040   "W                  W",
041   "W                  W",
045   "W                  W",
046   "W                  W",
047   "W                  W",
048   "W                  W",
049   "W                  W",
050   "W                  W",
051   "W                  W",
052   "W                  W",
053   "W                  W",
054   "W                  W",
055   "W                  W",
056   "W                  W",
057   "W                  W",
058   "W                  W",
059   ]
061   self.brick_size=(screen_size[0]/len(self.court[0]), screen_size[1]/len(self.court))
062   self.limits=(self.brick_size[0], (screen_size[0] - self.brick_size[0]))
064   self.wall=[]
065   self.bricks=[]
067   self.setup()
068   self.draw()
070   def setup(self):
071   y=0
072   for i in self.court:
073   x=0
074   for j in i:
075   pos_size=(x,y,self.brick_size[0],self.brick_size[1])
076   if j=="W":
077   self.wall.append(pygame.Rect(pos_size))
078   elif j=="B":
079   self.bricks.append(pygame.Rect(pos_size))
081   x += self.brick_size[0]
082   y += self.brick_size[1]
084   def draw(self):
085   screen.fill((0, 0, 0))
086   for i in self.wall:
087   pygame.draw.rect(screen, (255, 255, 255), i)
089   for i in self.bricks:
090   pygame.draw.rect(screen, (255, 255, 0), i)
092   def rm_brick(self, hit):
093   del self.bricks[hit]
095   self.draw()
097 class paddle(object):
098   def __init__(self, limits, brick_size):
099   self.paddle = []
101   self.limits = limits
102   self.paddle.append (pygame.Rect (((screen_size[0]/2) - brick_size[0], screen_size[1] - brick_size[1]), (brick_size[0]*2, (brick_size[1]/2))))
104   self.step = brick_size[0]/2
106   self.dial = dial()
107   self.dial_pos = 0
108   self.calibration()
110   self.draw((255,0,0))
112   def calibration(self):
113   while self.dial_pos < 0.45 or self.dial_pos > 0.55:
114   self.dial_pos=self.dial.get()
116   def place(self):
117   new_dial_pos = round(self.dial.get(),2)
119   if new_dial_pos != self.dial_pos:
120   self.draw((0,0,0))
121   self.paddle[0].x=(self.limits[1]-self.limits[0])-((((self.limits[1]-self.paddle[0].width)-self.limits[0])*new_dial_pos)+self.limits[0])
122   self.dial_pos=new_dial_pos
123   self.draw((255,0,0))
125   def draw(self, color):
126   pygame.draw.rect(screen, color, self.paddle[0])
128 if __name__ == ,__main__':
130   level=level()
131   level.draw()
132   ball=ball()
133   pygame.display.flip()
135   paddle=paddle(level.limits, level.brick_size)
137   while True:
138   if pygame.event.get(pygame.QUIT): break
142   ball.move()
143   if ball.ball.y > paddle.paddle[0].y: break
145   if ball.collision(level.wall) != -1:
146   level.draw()
147   paddle.draw((255,0,0))
149   hit=ball.collision(level.bricks)
150   if hit != -1:
151   level.rm_brick(hit)
152   paddle.draw((255,0,0))
154   ball.collision(paddle.paddle)
156   pygame.display.flip()
158   time.sleep(0.01)

You can download all the code from [2].

You start by importing in the modules you'll need on lines 1 to 3. You'll be building the game using pygame, which is installed by default on Raspbian. PyGame simplifies writing games a lot. You will use Python's default time module to control the speed of the game. Finally you'll import our very own dial module, so you can read from the potentiometer.

Next, you set up the screen on lines 5 to 8. You can change screen_size to suit your needs. Later on you'll see how the program adapts the bricks and paddle to whichever size you choose. I personally like my classic games like I like my bread sticks: long and thin, so I have set up the screen to be in portrait mode at 400 pixels wide and 640 high. When running with those measurements, the game looks similar to Figure 5. Working out which side of the screen is shorter (line 6) comes in handy when you have to calculate the ball's horizontal and vertical velocity. More on that later.

Figure 5: Our very simple Breakout game uses a potentiometer as an input controller.

You initialize the screen on line 7 and then display it on the next line.

Now we have to jump forward to the main module that starts on line 128. On line 130 we initiate a level object.

The building block (no pun intended) for the level class (lines 36 to 95) is PyGame's Rect() object [3]. A pygame.Rect() object lets you portion off sections of your screen that you can then manipulate individually. You can fill them with different colors or images, group several together, shrink or expand them, move them around, and detect if they are colliding with each other.

Bearing this in mind, when it comes to drawing the map of your level (lines 38 to 59), to make life easier for your level designers, you can use a simple list of strings of characters (dumped into court). A space indicates empty space, a W indicates an unbreakable chunk of wall, and a B indicates a breakable brick.

I made my screen into a 20x20 grid, because both 400 (the width of the screen you established on line 5) and 640 (the height of the screen) are wholly divisible by 20.

After working out the sizes of each brick (line 61), the leftmost and rightmost limit for the paddle (line 61), and initializing a couple of arrays to contain the bricks and wall data (lines 64 and 65), you use the setup() function (defined on lines 70 to 82) to actually transfer the data from court[] into the bricks and walls arrays. Each element in bricks[] and wall[] contains the position and size of each of its Rectangular blocks.

Drawing the court (lines 84 to 90) is just a matter of looping over all the elements in wall[] and painting them white (lines 86 and 87), then doing the same with the elements in bricks[] and painting them yellow (lines 89 and 90).

Using an array of bricks is also useful when one of them gets hit (see rm_brick(), lines 92 to 95), since all you have to do is remove that brick from the array (line 93). You then re-draw the court (line 95) and the brick will disappear from the screen.

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